Data on Swedish ABR situation
Public Health Agency web page on ABR /page in Swedish, some figures, slides in English/
Public Health Agency web page on ABR surveillance /languages as above/
ECDC:s EARS-Net web page (interactive database with European countries) /in English/
Data on Swedish antibiotic use
Public Health Agency web page on Swedish antibiotic sales /page in Swedish, some figures, slides in English/
ECDC:s ESAC-Net web page (interactive database with European countries) /in English/
Combined Report on ABR and AB use, in both humans and animals
Public Health Agency web page on Swedres-Svarm 2015
Report in English
On Swedish Work against Antibiotic Resistance
Public Health Agency web page with Report Swedish Work on Containment of Antibiotic Resistance /published 2014, 134 page, 2,2 MB downloadable Report in English
The Swedish “Intersectoral Coordinating Mechanism”
The Swedish National Plan Against ABR and HAI
ReAct – with important tools and resources for work against ABR /all in English/
In the 1980:s and 90:s, antibiotic use increased steadily in Sweden as well as elsewhere. In the beginning of the 1990:s, there was also an upsurge in antibiotic-resistant pneumococci. Foresighted physicians reacted to this. It seemed clear that a national, coordinated effort was needed to counter this development, and after discussions between the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA), the Medical Products Agency, the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and others, Strama was founded in 1995. Also veterinary involvement was early and strong.
For a more detailed account of the essential interaction of Strama with other actors, see “Swedish Work on Containment of Antibiotic Resistance”.
Strama was formed as a voluntary network on two levels with intense interaction: a national level, and a regional level with the local Strama groups, established quickly through the County Medical Officers for Communicable Diseases Control in every county. The national level has undergone a number of transformations; initially, it was an independent volunteer network in which representatives from authorities and organizations made up a national working group. From 2000, it received funding from the Swedish government. In 2010, the national Strama steering group was incorporated into then Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (presently Public Health Agency, PHA) and transformed into the “Strama Council”, and from 2014 instead a “Cooperation group for Strama issues”.
From 2011 the Strama Network ran the homepage Strama.se, was actively involved in the formation of a new Strama body within and financed by the health care authorities, and in 2016 the web page was handed over to then firmly established Program Council Strama.
In parallel, the period 2010 – 2014 meant stronger formalization and economy for the local Strama groups, generally, connected to the “Patient Safety Agreement” between the Government and the County Councils, where one important aim has been to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use.
The first 20 years of Strama (1995 to 2015) have correlated well with a favourable decline in antibiotic use (with no observed negative effects). As the need for efficient local work remains, also after the end of the “Patient Safety Agreement”, new forms for the long term coordination and improved local impact of the Strama work have been developed, with the advent of ”Program Council Strama”.
The Network of local Strama groups continues its work against antibiotic resistance through facilitation of the lateral exchange of experience and knowledge between the groups, in close collaboration with the Public Health Agency and Program Council Strama.